The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) was established by the Twenty Seventh Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government in July 2006

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Article By Dr. Ian Ralby, I.R. Consilium; Lt. Col. Michael Jones, The Caribbean Community’s Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (CARICOM IMPACS); and Capt. (N) Errington Shurland (ret.), Regional Security System (RSS)

Associated Organizations

This sub agency is in Barbados and is staffed by a combination of both contracted and seconded staff/attachments.

The JRCC is mainly responsible for the operations and management of the Advance Passenger Information System (APIS), which screens approximately forty (40) Million passengers annually, specifically those entering, and travelling within the CARICOM Region by air and sea ports.

The JRCC will also house the Advance Cargo Information System (ACIS) when it comes on stream. ACIS which will provide Customs Divisions in the Region with the capability to track, monitor and profile cargo prior to its arrival in or through the Region to ensure that both timely and appropriate action is taken by customs and law enforcement officials.

This sub agency is in Trinidad and provides support to Member States in intelligence gathering, sharing and analysis. It is staffed mainly by attachments from individual Member States, who are seconded to this Centre for an initial period of two (2) years. Its current mandate is as follows:

  1. To provide 24/7 support to the Joint Regional Communication Centre (JRCC) in Border Protection and Continuity of Operations
  2. To Collect information that reveals the Plans, Intentions and Capabilities of Threat Entities and Provide the basis for decision
  3. To produce timely analyses that provide Insight, Warning and Opportunity to the Decision Makers charged with Protecting and Advancing the Region’s Interests
  4. To provide Standardised Training and Major Event Support to Member States
  5. To Establish Regional and International Liaisons in Support of the Intelligence Mandate
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The working relationship with the Caribbean Disaster and Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA) was also evidenced through the EEAS facilitated collaboration on the establishment of a CARICOM mechanism for coordinated responses to political crisis, health crisis, disaster and all other crises in the Region.

In January 2011, CARICOM IMPACS and CDEMA completed a memorandum of understanding.

The Caribbean Aviation Safety and Security Oversight System (CASSOS), an Institution of CARICOM created by the members of the Association of Civil Aviation Authorities of the Caribbean (ACAAC). The CASSOS is the first Regional Safety Oversight Organisation (RSOO) of its kind in Caribbean aviation and aims at facilitating the growth and development of aviation in the Region through training, resource sharing, harmonization of policies and procedures among other areas as its Member States seek to uphold the highest standards of safety and security in aviation.

CASSOS was formally launched in February 2009 at the Headquarters of the CARICOM Secretariat in Guyana. CASSOS succeeds RASOS, with functions that been redefined and are broader in scope to include all the annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago, 1944), commonly called ICAO Annexes.

A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) which set out the Association’s main objectives was developed and signed by the Directors of Civil Aviation of Barbados, Belize, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago.

The Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA) worked closely with CARICOM IMPACS in the prevention as well as preparing for tracking of patients or potential patients in the regional response for the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). It was during this interaction that the security component was recognized. IMPACS was also designated by Heads of Government as a member of the Regional Ebola Prevention Team which is chaired by CARPHA. It should be noted that at the national levels, IMPACS sits on the Ebola Committees both in Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago.

CARPHA is also part of the grouping which stands to benefit from the Crisis Room Programme funded by the European Union of which CDEMA and RSS are a part and which IMPACS coordinated.

In January 2017, CARICOM IMPACS and CARPHA signed a memorandum of understanding.

The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) was established by the Twenty Seventh Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government in July 2006, in Bird Rock, St Kitts and Nevis, as the implementation arm of a new Regional Architecture to manage CARICOM’s action agenda on crime and security.

At this Meeting, the Heads of Government signed an Inter-Governmental Agreement establishing the Agency as a legal entity, with direct responsibility for research, monitoring and evaluation, analysis and preparation of background documents and reports, as well as project development and implementation of the regional Crime and Security agenda

n 2014 functional cooperation between Regional Security System (RSS) and IMPACS was evidenced through the collaboration of these two agencies on the establishment of a CARICOM mechanism for coordinated responses to disaster and crises in the Region. This was being facilitated through support from the European External Action Service (EEAS).

RSS participates in the Standing Committee Meetings of the Commissioners of Police and Military Chiefs as well as the Comptrollers of Customs and Immigration Chiefs meetings providing insight from a sub-regional perspective.

In December 2012, IMPACS and the RSS formalized its relationship with the signing of a memorandum of understanding

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The Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) was formally established in 1987 in Castries, St Lucia by a resolution passed by 13 members on 20th August.

The Association of Caribbean Commissioners (ACCP) works to promote regional cooperation in the fight against criminal activities in areas including narcotics, terrorism, and organized crime. ACCP’s mandate is to provide leadership in the fight against criminal activities in areas such as narcotics, terrorism, and organized crime, and to contribute to the further development of law enforcement in the region and the enhancement of best practices in policing. ACCP fosters the professional and technical skills of police officers, engages with regional partners to share common services such as training, forensic analysis, and research, and aims to influence the development of laws, procedures, and practices to advance the effectiveness of regional policing.

The ACCP members is made up of Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Curacao, Caymen Islands, Dominica, French Antilles, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Marteen, St. Vincent, Suriname, Trinidad, Turks & Caicos, and United States Virgin Islands.

The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is a grouping of twenty countries: fifteen Member States and five Associate Members. It is home to approximately sixteen million citizens, 60% of whom are under the age of 30, and from the main ethnic groups of Indigenous Peoples, Africans, Indians, Europeans, Chinese, Portuguese, and Javanese. The Community is multi-lingual; with English as the major language complemented by French and Dutch and variations of these, as well as African and Asian expressions.

Stretching from The Bahamas in the north to Suriname and Guyana in South America, CARICOM comprises states that are considered developing countries, and except for Belize, in Central America and Guyana and Suriname in South America, all Members and Associate Members are island states.

CARICOM came into being on 4 July 1973 with the signing of the Treaty of Chaguaramas by Prime Ministers Errol Barrow for Barbados, Forbes Burnham for Guyana, Michael Manley for Jamaica and Eric Williams for Trinidad and Tobago. The Treaty was later revised in 2002 to allow for the eventual establishment of a single market and a single economy.

The Caribbean Basin Security Initiative – Connect (CBSI-Connect) project is funded by the United States under the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI); a partnership between the United States and Caribbean nations working together to reduce illicit trafficking, increase public safety, and promote social justice.

The Caribbean Basin Security Initiative (CBSI) is one pillar of a United Stated (U.S.) security strategy focused on citizen safety throughout the Caribbean. CBSI brings members of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Dominican Republic together to collaborate on regional security with the United States as a partner.

The United States and Caribbean countries have identified three (3) core objectives to deal with the threats facing the Caribbean:

  1. Substantially Reduce Illicit Trafficking through programs ranging from counter-narcotics to reducing the flow of illegal arms/light weapons.
  2. Increase Public Safety and Security through programs ranging from professionalizing law enforcement institutions through technical assistance and training, to improving rule of law by supporting the development of the justice sector.
  3. Promote Social Justice through crime prevention activities in targeted communities, police and justice sector reform, anti- corruption programs, and increased educational, economic and social opportunities for at-risk youth.

Launched in October 2012, the Initiative has created the CBSI-Connect Learning Management System, installed classroom multimedia equipment in eighteen (18) participating institutions, provided training and support to hundreds of law enforcement personnel, and saves the region in travel and per-diem expenses.

Following a long-awaited meeting, Caribbean Customs Law Enforcement Council (CCLEC) and CARICOM IMPACS now have better insight into each other’s mandate, challenges, work plans and proposed collaboration for the future. As a result of the meeting, in-depth discussions take place with respect to intelligence training for CCLEC representatives; sharing of information; access to CCLEC databases; access and enhancement of information collection as it pertains to yachts.

CCLEC is represented on the Advance Cargo Information System (ACIS) Oversight and Implementation Committee (OIC) to provide its input for the smooth and seamless implementation of system.

In May 2013, CARICOM IMPACS and CCLEC signed a memorandum of understanding.

The Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF) is an organization of twenty-five (25) states of the Caribbean Basin, Central and South America, which have agreed to implement common countermeasures to address money laundering. It was established as a result of meetings convened in Aruba in May 1990 and Jamaica in November 1992.

The main objective of the CFATF is to achieve effective implementation of, and compliance with, the FATF recommendations to prevent and control money laundering and to counter the financing of terrorism and proliferation of weapons.

In May 2013, CARICOM IMPACS and CCLEC signed a memorandum of understanding.

Cognizant at that time of the growing importance of telecommunications for the social and economic development of the Caribbean and the need to foster international cooperation and development by means of efficient telecommunications services, the Governments of the Member States of the Caribbean Community established the Caribbean Telecommunications Union (CTU) by treaty on 28th April, 1989.

The agreed primary goals of the CTU, inter alia, were:

1.To facilitate the coordination of the planning, programming and development of intra-regional and international communications networks to meet the immediate and future telecommunications needs of the Region;
2.To assist the development of the national components of regional and international telecommunications networks; and
3.To promote the general awareness of the telecommunications needs of the Caribbean Region and its potential for promoting the socio-economic development of the Region.

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CICTE is the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism. It is the only regional entity whose purpose is to prevent and combat terrorism in the Americas.

CICTE promotes cooperation and dialogue among member states to counteract terrorism, in accordance with the principles of the OAS Charter, with the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism, and with full respect for the sovereignty of countries, the rule of law and international law.

The CICTE Secretariat is the implementation body that has the task of supporting member states in their efforts to prevent and counteract terrorism.

The European Development Fund (EDF) was created in 1957 by the Treaty of Rome and launched in 1959. The European Development Fund (EDF) is the EU’s main instrument for providing development aid to African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and to overseas countries and territories (OCTs).

The EDF funds cooperation activities in the fields of economic development, social and human development as well as regional cooperation and integration.

It is financed by direct contributions from EU Member States according to a contribution key and is covered by its own financial rules.

The International Center for the Prevention of Crime (ICPC) was founded in 1994 and is an international forum for national governments, local authorities, public agencies, specialized institutions, and non-government organizations to exchange experience, emerging knowledge, and policies and programmes in crime prevention and community safety. It assists cities and countries to reduce delinquency, violent crime and insecurity.

It helps put knowledge into action by making the knowledge base for strategic crime prevention and community safety better known and more accessible worldwide, encouraging the use of good practices and tools to produce community safety, fostering exchanges between countries and cities, criminal justice institutions and community-based organizations, providing technical assistance and training.

The International Criminal Police Organization is an inter-governmental organization with 194 member countries, that helps police forces in its member countries to work together to make the world a safer place. To do this, INTERPOL enables member countries to share and access data on crimes and criminals and offers a range of technical and operational support.

INTERPOL connects participating countries via a communications system called I-24/7. Countries use this secure network to contact each other, and the General Secretariat. It also allows them to access our databases and services in real-time, from both central and remote locations. They also coordinate networks of police and experts in different crime areas, who come together through working groups and at conferences to share experiences and ideas.

Established in 1951, IOM is the leading inter-governmental organization in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners. With 173 member states, a further 8 states holding observer status and offices in over 100 countries, IOM is dedicated to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all. It does so by providing services and advice to governments and migrants.

IOM works to help ensure the orderly and humane management of migration, to promote international cooperation on migration issues, to assist in the search for practical solutions to migration problems and to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, including refugees and internally displaced people.

The IOM Constitution recognizes the link between migration and economic, social and cultural development, as well as to the right of freedom of movement. IOM works in the four broad areas of migration management:
• Migration and development
• Facilitating migration
• Regulating migration
• Forced migration

The Organization of American States is the world’s oldest regional organization, dating back to the First International Conference of American States, held in Washington, D.C., from October 1889 to April 1890. That meeting approved the establishment of the International Union of American Republics, and the stage was set for the weaving of a web of provisions and institutions that came to be known as the inter-American system, the oldest international institutional system.

The OAS came into being in 1948 with the signing in Bogotá, Colombia, of the Charter of the OAS, which entered into force in December 1951. It was subsequently amended by the Protocol of Buenos Aires, signed in 1967, which entered into force in February 1970; by the Protocol of Cartagena de Indias, signed in 1985, which entered into force in November 1988; by the Protocol of Managua, signed in 1993, which entered into force in January 1996; and by the Protocol of Washington, signed in 1992, which entered into force in September 1997.

The United States Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) is one of eleven (11) unified Combatant Commands (COCOMs) in the Department of Defense.

SOUTHCOM is responsible for providing contingency planning, operations, and security cooperation in its assigned Area of Responsibility which includes: Central & South America, The Caribbean (except U.S. commonwealths, territories, and possessions). SOUTHCOM is also responsible for ensuring the defense of the Panama Canal.

SOUTHCOM is a joint command comprised of more than 1,200 military and civilian personnel representing the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, and several other federal agencies.

The services provide SOUTHCOM with component commands which, along with our Joint Special Operations component, two Joint Task Forces, one Joint Interagency Task Force, and Security Cooperation Organizations, perform SOUTHCOM missions and security cooperation activities.

The Home Office is the lead ministerial department of the Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration and passports, drugs policy, crime, fire, counter-terrorism, police/security, and law and order. As such it is responsible for policing in England and Wales, fire and rescue services in England, visas and immigration and the Security Service.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) works in about one hundred and seventy (170) countries and territories, helping to achieve the eradication of poverty, and the reduction of inequalities and exclusion. The UNDP helps countries to develop policies, leadership skills, partnering abilities, institutional capabilities and build resilience in order to sustain development results.

In September 2015, world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. The UNDP is working to strengthen new frameworks for development, disaster risk reduction and climate change. The UNDP also supports countries’ efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, or Global Goals, which will guide global development priorities through 2030.

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); the UN Refugee Agency. UNHCR is a global organization dedicated to saving lives, protecting rights and building a better future for refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people.

UNHCR is also mandated to assist in the voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement of refugees, forcibly displaced communities, and stateless people to a third country.

The United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC) was created by a UN General Assembly resolution in 1986.

UNILREC is one of three Regional Centres of the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA). It is part of the Regional Disarmament Branch (RDB) of UNODA, which oversees and coordinates the activities of the all the disarmament centres for peace and development.

UNLIREC is the only UN regional entity specialized in disarmament and non-proliferation in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Its main function is to translate the decisions, instruments and commitments of Member States in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation into action, at national, sub-regional and regional levels. In short, UNLIREC supports Latin American and Caribbean States in achieving and maintaining peace and security through disarmament.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) works in about one hundred and seventy (170) countries and territories, helping to achieve the eradication of poverty, and the reduction of inequalities and exclusion. The UNDP helps countries to develop policies, leadership skills, partnering abilities, institutional capabilities and build resilience in order to sustain development results.

In September 2015, world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. The UNDP is working to strengthen new frameworks for development, disaster risk reduction and climate change. The UNDP also supports countries’ efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, or Global Goals, which will guide global development priorities through 2030.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) serves as the central drug control entity with exclusive responsibility for coordinating and providing effective leadership for all United Nations drug control activities and serves as the repository of technical expertise in international drug control for the Secretariat of the United Nations, including the regional commissions, and other United Nations organs, as well as Member States, and in this capacity advises them on questions of international and national drug control.

For two (2) decades, the UNODC has been helping make the world safer from drugs, organized crime, corruption and terrorism. The UNODC is committed to achieving health, security and justice for all by tackling these threats and promoting peace and sustainable well-being as deterrents to them.

CBP Mission: To safeguard America’s borders thereby protecting the public from dangerous people and materials while enhancing the Nation’s global economic competitiveness by enabling legitimate trade and travel.

Vision: To serve as the premier law enforcement agency enhancing the Nation’s safety, security, and prosperity through collaboration, innovation, and integration.

Border Security: CBP secures America’s borders at and between ports of entry by stopping inadmissible people and illicit goods. CBP’s offices of Field Operations, Border Patrol, and Air and Marine Operations represent the largest federal law enforcement agency.

Trade: CBP works to secure and facilitate imports arriving in the U.S., accommodating the increasing volume and complexities of international trade. CBP protects U.S. agricultural resources through active inspections at ports of entry. With the Container Security Initiative, Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism, and the Automated Commercial Environment, CBP has a sturdy base of partnerships and technology to safeguard the American public and promote legitimate international commerce.

The United States Marshal Service (US MS); and arm of The United States Department of Justice. The US MS provides:

• Judicial Security
• Fugitive Apprehension
• Asset Forfeiture
• Prisoner Operations
• Prisoner Transportation
• Sex Offender Investigations
• Missing Child Program
• Tactical Operations
• Witness Security

The World Customs Organization (WCO) established in 1952 as the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) is an independent intergovernmental body whose mission is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of Customs administrations.

Today, the WCO represents 183 Customs administrations across the globe that collectively process approximately 98% of world trade. As the global centre of Customs expertise, the WCO is the only international organization with competence in Customs matters and can rightly call itself the voice of the international Customs community.

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